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Definition, Characteristics, Attitudes, Types and Conditions


KOMPAS.com – Research is carried out on the basis of curiosity. The validity and accuracy of the results must also be accounted for.

In Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI)Research is defined as the activity of collecting, processing, analyzing and presenting data in a systematic and objective manner, to solve problems or test hypotheses.

The definition of research according to experts

Here are some research definitions according to experts:

Quoting from a book Quantitative Approach Research Methodology (2021) by Abd. Mukhid, written by the definition of research according to Suhardjono, is an effort to find information to solve a problem using the scientific method.

According to Kerlinger, research is a systematic and controlled process of finding information based on hypotheses and theories.

According to McMillan and Schumacher, research is the process of finding and analyzing data systematically and logically to achieve certain goals.

According to Soerjono Soekanto, research is a scientific activity that is centered on analysis, carried out systematically and consistently, aiming to reveal the truth.

Also read: Social Research: Definition and Characteristics

Reporting from the site iEduNote, research has four basic characteristics, namely:

  1. Be systematic and logical
    This means that research is carried out through sequential procedures or steps. In addition, research must also be made logically and not manipulate anything in it.
  2. Scientific in nature
    This means that the research results must be accounted for and can be proven. So research must present various data or fact findings.
  3. Efficient and useful
    This means that research must be arranged as efficiently as possible and can be understood by many groups. In addition, research must also have a contribution to the development of science.
  4. Analytical
    This means that research must be carried out, proven and explained through a process of scientific methods. The causal relationship between variables must also be clearly described in research.

According to Sandu Siyoto and Ali Sodik in the book Basic Research Methodology (2015), a researcher must have three attitudes. What are some of them?

  1. Objective
    Researchers must be objective. This means that researchers must be able to distinguish which facts or data findings and opinions or opinions. In the analysis of research results, the researcher must clearly describe the findings of the facts without using personal opinion.
  2. Competent
    Researchers must be competent. This means that researchers have the skills to conduct research with certain scientific and technical methods.
  3. Factual
    Researchers must be factual. This means that researchers must collect, explain and analyze data findings based on the facts obtained, without using abstract assumptions or expectations.

In the book Health and Education Research Methodology (2018) by Syamsunie Carsel, there are six types of research, namely:

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