The lichen is what happens when fungi derogate from algae and it doesn't go away. Sweet arrangement: The fungus gives shelter, and algae enhances the fungus. They are still separate from species, but they cannot crush them apart and the fungi that usually live. So they have long been studied as a single organism.
These relationships are so successful that they have spent hundreds of millions of years. But they are not as old as they ever thought. Unlike ordinary wisdom that lichens were some of the earliest ones to land, a study published Thursday in Geoscience suggests that lichens probably made their way to land about 100 million years after plants. vascular, such as ferns. Results of study our downturn understanding of the bad time, tree of life and how lichens, plants and fungi transformed the Earth's changing climate, which means that other organisms can evolve and survive on our planet today.
“Although they can live in these very real areas, they are often part of the first colonizers, it never means they have ever been,” said Matthew Nelsen, evolutionary biologist at Field Museum. Chicago and author of the study.
Lichens are about 7 per cent of the earth's surface. You will find more than 13,500 species taking soil, rocks, bark and even dead animals, even in the Earth's steeper climates.
It has long been known that lichens were among the earliest land harvesters. And during more than a hundred years of study, there are many scientists They said that lichens created more welcoming sites for vascular plants when they moved from water to land. It made sense: We can look at contemporary lichens that move into intense non-pristine environments before anything else.
Dr. didn't intend to do so. Nelsen refute these assumptions. He wanted to go to another debate: What was the basis for the hugging habit of most fungi that created lichens? Could you trace this lichen only to the same origin, or have there been some fungi chosen by it at different times and places over the years?
Studies supporting both arguments are dependent on different methods that created incomplete data, only synthesis tragising with the fungal side of the relationship or relying on ambiguous trust evidence, says Dr Nelsen and others.
To clean things up, Dr. Nelsen and his team compared the ages of the group containing 98 percent of fungi that are making lichens (ascomycota, including yeast, morrels and penicillium) and algae to vascular plant fossils from about 425 million years ago.
They decided that lichens in line with lichens have developed about 250 million years ago, on average, after these plants have been rooted on the ground. The time varies, however, suggesting that different fungi developed their algae-hugging habits independently, and that it did not receive it from a prime ancestor only.
I A study published last year in Nature, François Lutzoni, Duke University of Lichezoni, also found that lichens emerged with plants or later, but not before that, in general. Dr.'s study expands. This result is accompanied by further details and evidence of the origin of the lichens.
“I think this new study adds greatly,” said Cécile Gueidan, who researches fungi and the evolution of lichens at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, the national scientific research agency of Australia, and was not involved. She has either of the two studies.
The development of geocaching in geological time provides a better understanding of the impact of plants and lichens on an emerging climate of our world. Plants are less likely to compete with lichens, and lichens were not major climate variables prepared by the world for vascular plants.
The next step is to study genomes to gain a better understanding of how different lichen relationships have developed and where each lies on the timeline.
“Are they spread over time or going through different periods of time?” Dr. Nelsen asked. “Are there certain events or circumstances that might happen, or is there something in the genes?” T