Papilloma virus was traditionally considered to be a sexually transmitted disease, but a recent study found that rabbit papillomaviruses and mouse could be transferred through blood to their respective host.
Penn State researchers told the study that this raises the possibility of human papilloma virus (HPV) being transferable to blood in humans.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease in humans, with around 79 million people infected in the United States alone. Although HPV is often harmless and leaves itself, it may lead to generating tarts or to cervical or oral cancer.
Jiafen Hu, assistant professor of laboratory pathology and medicine at Penn State College of Medicine, said that the results of the team suggest that more research is needed to establish if HPV can be spread through blood in humans, particularly through blood transfusions.
"People who have an optimal blood transfusion usually have immune systems, so their systems are more vulnerable," Hu said. "We may wish to consider adding HPV to the list of viruses being screened for blood donations, as well as researching whether the HPV viral load in the human is enough to create an infection. T "
The results were published recently in the magazine Microbes & Emerging Infections.
The study emerged after observation in 2005 urged one of the study authors to question how HPV is transmitted.
"Some years ago, researchers were looking at blood samples from a group of children who were HIV positive, and as they were testing those samples, they found that some of them were positive for HPV," Hu said. "Because these children were so young, it prompted the question of whether the virus could come from a blood transfusion, which some of the children had."
While HPV is specific to humans and cannot be tested directly in animal models, the researchers said that there are a number of different strains of palomavirus in animals and that they can be well approximated on how HPV might work in humans.
The researchers used two of these animal models for some experiments, including the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus model, which the researchers said are considered to be a "gold standard" for the study of infections and diseases. related to HPV.
Initially, the researchers put a virus into the rabbit's bloodstream. They monitored the rabbits, and after four weeks they noticed tumors on the animals, which Hu showed that the virus traveled through the bloodstream and that it took infection.
Because their first experiment used a fairly large amount of the virus – more than in normal infection – the researchers repeated the experiment to reduce the virus by five times. The tumors appeared again, this time on 18 out of 32 sites on the animals.
"We were able to show that the virus in the blood caused tumors, but what about blood transfusions?" Hu said. “People who get a transfusion can only have a very small amount of the virus. To simulate this, we put the virus into one animal, took 10 milliliters of blood and transferred it to the second animal.
While the rabbit model showed that the virus could travel through the blood stream to cause infections in the skin, Hu said that the question remained as to whether it could cause infections in mucous membranes, such as cervix.
The researchers redesigned the experiments in a mouse model and found not only that they felt the virus in mucous membranes like the tongue and genitals, but that they also found it in the stomach. Hu noted that this is a significant result because sometimes people with cancer can have papillomavirus layers in their tummy and other internal organs.
Hu said that while HPV does not have health problems for everyone who is infected with the virus, it is important to still know if it can be spread with blood.
"We know that HPV is common and not everyone will get the cancer to get cancer," Hu said. "The most difficult thing is that many people with HPV who are asymptomatic have the potential to spread the virus. If a person has a transfusion due to one health issue, you don't want to accidentally remove another." top of that. "
Materials provided by Penn State. Note: Content can be edited for style and length.
viruses (tagsToTranslate); STD; Hypertension; Blood clots; Virology; Avian Influenza Research; Microbes and Larger; Mice